| Dangers of Aspartame
If a product is approved by the Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) and composed of natural ingredients, would you assume it
is safe to consume?
If the same product is an artificial sweetener, would you assume
it helps control your weight?
Millions of people use aspartame, the artificial sweetener known
as NutraSweet, with these assumptions in mind.
While the FDA approval may signal the green light for safe consumption,
75 percent of all complaints registered with the FDA are for adverse
reactions to aspartame, including five reported deaths. A closer
look at the unscientific studies, suspicious approval methods,
and its harmful ingredients, reveal the hidden dangers of this
artificial sweetener. In reality, aspartame poses a public health
Aspartame is made up of three chemicals: Aspartic acid, phenylalanine,
and methanol. The book, Prescription for Nutritional Healing,
by James and Phyllis Balch, lists aspartame under the category
of "chemical poison." As you shall see, that is exactly
what it is.
Is Aspartame Made Of?
Acid (40 percent of aspartame)
Dr. Russell L. Blaylock, a professor of neurosurgery at the Medical
University of Mississippi, recently published a book thoroughly
detailing the damage that is caused by the ingestion of excessive
aspartic acid from aspartame. Blaylock makes use of almost 500
scientific references to show how excess free excitatory amino
acids such as aspartic acid and glutamic acid (about 99 percent
of monosodium glutamate (MSG) is glutamic acid) in our food supply
are causing serious chronic neurological disorders and a myriad
of other acute symptoms.(3)
Aspartate (and Glutamate) Cause Damage
Aspartate and glutamate act as neurotransmitters in the brain
by facilitating the transmission of information from neuron to
neuron. Too much aspartate or glutamate in the brain kills certain
neurons by allowing the influx of too much calcium into the cells.
This influx triggers excessive amounts of free radicals, which
kill the cells. The neural cell damage that can be caused by excessive
aspartate and glutamate is why they are referred to as "excitotoxins."
They "excite" or stimulate the neural cells to death.
Aspartic acid is an amino acid. Taken in its free form (unbound
to proteins) it significantly raises the blood plasma level of
aspartate and glutamate. The excess aspartate and glutamate in
the blood plasma shortly after ingesting aspartame or products
with free glutamic acid (glutamate precursor) leads to a high
level of those neurotransmitters in certain areas of the brain.
The blood brain barrier (BBB), which normally protects the brain
from excess glutamate and aspartate as well as toxins, 1) is not
fully developed during childhood, 2) does not fully protect all
areas of the brain, 3) is damaged by numerous chronic and acute
conditions, and 4) allows seepage of excess glutamate and aspartate
into the brain even when intact.
The excess glutamate and aspartate slowly begin to destroy neurons.
The large majority (75 percent or more) of neural cells in a particular
area of the brain are killed before any clinical symptoms of a
chronic illness are noticed. A few of the many chronic illnesses
that have been shown to be contributed to by long-term exposure
to excitatory amino acid damage include:
- Multiple sclerosis (MS)
- Memory loss
- Hormonal problems
- Hearing loss
- Alzheimer's disease
- Parkinson's disease
- Brain lesions
- Neuroendocrine disorders
The risk to infants, children, pregnant women, the elderly and
persons with certain chronic health problems from excitotoxins
are great. Even the Federation of American Societies for Experimental
Biology (FASEB), which usually understates problems and mimics
the FDA party-line, recently stated in a review that:
"It is prudent to avoid the use of dietary supplements of
L-glutamic acid by pregnant women, infants, and children. The
existence of evidence of potential endocrine responses, i.e.,
elevated cortisol and prolactin, and differential responses between
males and females, would also suggest a neuroendocrine link and
that supplemental L-glutamic acid should be avoided by women of
childbearing age and individuals with affective disorders."(4)
Aspartic acid from aspartame has the same deleterious effects
on the body as glutamic acid.
The exact mechanism of acute reactions to excess free glutamate
and aspartate is currently being debated. As reported to the FDA,
those reactions include:(5)
- Abdominal pains
- Fatigue (blocks sufficient glucose entry into brain)
- Sleep problems
- Vision problems
- Anxiety attacks
- Asthma/chest tightness.
One common complaint of persons suffering from the effect of
aspartame is memory loss. Ironically, in 1987, G.D. Searle, the
manufacturer of aspartame, undertook a search for a drug to combat
memory loss caused by excitatory amino acid damage. Blaylock is
one of many scientists and physicians who are concerned about
excitatory amino acid damage caused by ingestion of aspartame
A few of the many experts who have spoken out against the damage
being caused by aspartate and glutamate include Adrienne Samuels,
Ph.D., an experimental psychologist specializing in research design.
Another is Olney, a professor in the department of psychiatry,
School of Medicine, Washington University, a neuroscientist and
researcher, and one of the world's foremost authorities on excitotoxins.
(He informed Searle in 1971 that aspartic acid caused holes in
the brains of mice.)
(50 percent of aspartame)
Phenylalanine is an amino acid normally found in the brain. Persons
with the genetic disorder phenylketonuria (PKU) cannot metabolize
phenylalanine. This leads to dangerously high levels of phenylalanine
in the brain (sometimes lethal). It has been shown that ingesting
aspartame, especially along with carbohydrates, can lead to excess
levels of phenylalanine in the brain even in persons who do not
This is not just a theory, as many people who have eaten large
amounts of aspartame over a long period of time and do not have
PKU have been shown to have excessive levels of phenylalanine
in the blood. Excessive levels of phenylalanine in the brain can
cause the levels of seratonin in the brain to decrease, leading
to emotional disorders such as depression. It was shown in human
testing that phenylalanine levels of the blood were increased
significantly in human subjects who chronically used aspartame.(6)
Even a single use of aspartame raised the blood phenylalanine
levels. In his testimony before the U.S. Congress, Dr. Louis J.
Elsas showed that high blood phenylalanine can be concentrated
in parts of the brain and is especially dangerous for infants
and fetuses. He also showed that phenylalanine is metabolised
much more effeciently by rodents than by humans.(7)
One account of a case of extremely high phenylalanine levels
caused by aspartame was recently published the "Wednesday
Journal" in an article titled "An Aspartame Nightmare."
John Cook began drinking six to eight diet drinks every day. His
symptoms started out as memory loss and frequent headaches. He
began to crave more aspartame-sweetened drinks. His condition
deteriorated so much that he experienced wide mood swings and
violent rages. Even though he did not suffer from PKU, a blood
test revealed a phenylalanine level of 80 mg/dl. He also showed
abnormal brain function and brain damage. After he kicked his
aspartame habit, his symptoms improved dramatically.(8)
As Blaylock points out in his book, early studies measuring phenylalanine
buildup in the brain were flawed. Investigators who measured specific
brain regions and not the average throughout the brain notice
significant rises in phenylalanine levels. Specifically the hypothalamus,
medulla oblongata, and corpus striatum areas of the brain had
the largest increases in phenylalanine. Blaylock goes on to point
out that excessive buildup of phenylalanine in the brain can cause
schizophrenia or make one more susceptible to seizures.
Therefore, long-term, excessive use of aspartame may provid a
boost to sales of seratonin reuptake inhibitors such as Prozac
and drugs to control schizophrenia and seizures.
(aka wood alcohol/poison) (10 percent of aspartame)
Methanol/wood alcohol is a deadly poison. Some people may remember
methanol as the poison that has caused some "skid row"
alcoholics to end up blind or dead. Methanol is gradually released
in the small intestine when the methyl group of aspartame encounter
the enzyme chymotrypsin.
The absorption of methanol into the body is sped up considerably
when free methanol is ingested. Free methanol is created from
aspartame when it is heated to above 86 Fahrenheit (30 Centigrade).
This would occur when aspartame-containing product is improperly
stored or when it is heated (e.g., as part of a "food"
product such as Jello).
Methanol breaks down into formic acid and formaldehyde in the
body. Formaldehyde is a deadly neurotoxin. An EPA assessment of
methanol states that methanol "is considered a cumulative
poison due to the low rate of excretion once it is absorbed. In
the body, methanol is oxidized to formaldehyde and formic acid;
both of these metabolites are toxic." They recommend a limit
of consumption of 7.8 mg/day. A one-liter (approx. 1 quart) aspartame-sweetened
beverage contains about 56 mg of methanol. Heavy users of aspartame-containing
products consume as much as 250 mg of methanol daily or 32 times
the EPA limit.(9)
Symptoms from methanol poisoning include headaches, ear buzzing,
dizziness, nausea, gastrointestinal disturbances, weakness, vertigo,
chills, memory lapses, numbness and shooting pains in the extremities,
behavioral disturbances, and neuritis. The most well known problems
from methanol poisoning are vision problems including misty vision,
progressive contraction of visual fields, blurring of vision,
obscuration of vision, retinal damage, and blindness. Formaldehyde
is a known carcinogen, causes retinal damage, interferes with
DNA replication and causes birth defects.(10)
Due to the lack of a couple of key enzymes, humans are many times
more sensitive to the toxic effects of methanol than animals.
Therefore, tests of aspartame or methanol on animals do not accurately
reflect the danger for humans. As pointed out by Dr. Woodrow C.
Monte, director of the food science and nutrition laboratory at
Arizona State University, "There are no human or mammalian
studies to evaluate the possible mutagenic, teratogenic or carcinogenic
effects of chronic administration of methyl alcohol."(11)
He was so concerned about the unresolved safety issues that he
filed suit with the FDA requesting a hearing to address these
issues. He asked the FDA to "slow down on this soft drink
issue long enough to answer some of the important questions. It's
not fair that you are leaving the full burden of proof on the
few of us who are concerned and have such limited resources. You
must remember that you are the American public's last defense.
Once you allow usage (of aspartame) there is literally nothing
I or my colleagues can do to reverse the course. Aspartame will
then join saccharin, the sulfiting agents, and God knows how many
other questionable compounds enjoined to insult the human constitution
with governmental approval."(10) Shortly thereafter, the
Commissioner of the FDA, Arthur Hull Hayes, Jr., approved the
use of aspartame in carbonated beverages, he then left for a position
with G.D. Searle's public relations firm.(11)
It has been pointed out that some fruit juices and alcoholic
beverages contain small amounts of methanol. It is important to
remember, however, that methanol never appears alone. In every
case, ethanol is present, usually in much higher amounts. Ethanol
is an antidote for methanol toxicity in humans.(9) The troops
of Desert Storm were "treated" to large amounts of aspartame-sweetened
beverages, which had been heated to over 86 degrees F in the Saudi
Arabian sun. Many of them returned home with numerous disorders
similar to what has been seen in persons who have been chemically
poisoned by formaldehyde. The free methanol in the beverages may
have been a contributing factor in these illnesses. Other breakdown
products of aspartame such as DKP (discussed below) may also have
been a factor.
In a 1993 act that can only be described as "unconscionable,"
the FDA approved aspartame as an ingredient in numerous food items
that would always be heated to above 86 degree F (30 degree C).
DKP is a byproduct of aspartame metabolism. DKP has been implicated
in the occurrence of brain tumors. Olney noticed that DKP, when
nitrosated in the gut, produced a compound that was similar to
N-nitrosourea, a powerful brain tumor causing chemical. Some authors
have said that DKP is produced after aspartame ingestion. I am
not sure if that is correct. It is definitely true that DKP is
formed in liquid aspartame-containing products during prolonged
G.D. Searle conducted animal experiments on the safety of DKP.
The FDA found numerous experimental errors occurred, including
"clerical errors, mixed-up animals, animals not getting drugs
they were supposed to get, pathological specimens lost because
of improper handling," and many other errors.(12) These sloppy
laboratory procedures may explain why both the test and control
animals had sixteen times more brain tumors than would be expected
in experiments of this length.
In an ironic twist, shortly after these experimental errors were
discovered, the FDA used guidelines recommended by G.D. Searle
to develop the industry-wide FDA standards for good laboratory
DKP has also been implicated as a cause of uterine polyps and
changes in blood cholesterol by FDA Toxicologist Dr. Jacqueline
Verrett in her testimony before the U.S. Senate.(13)
Ailments Resulting From Aspartame
The components of aspartame can lead to a wide variety of ailments.
Some of these problems occur gradually while others are immediate,
A few of the many disorders associated with aspartame include
A study funded by Monsanto to study possible birth defects
caused by consuming aspartame was cut off after preliminary
data showed damaging information about aspartame. Additionally,
in the book, While Waiting: A Prenatal Guidebook, it is stated
that aspartame is suspected of causing brain damage in sensitive
individuals. A fetus may be at risk for these effects. Some
researchers have suggested that high doses of aspartame may
be associated with problems ranging from dizziness and subtle
brain changes to mental retardation.
In 1981, an FDA statistician stated that the brain tumor data
on aspartame was so "worrisome" that he could not
recommend approval of NutraSweet.(14)
In a two-year study conducted by the manufacturer of aspartame,
twelve of 320 rats fed a normal diet and aspartame developed
brain tumors while none of the control rats developed tumors,
and five of the twelve tumors were in rats given a low dose
The approval of aspartame was a violation of the Delaney Amendment,
which was supposed to prevent cancer-causing substances such
as methanol (formaldehye) and DKP from entering our food supply.
A late FDA toxicologist testified before the U.S. Congress that
aspartame was capable of producing brain tumors. This made it
illegal for the FDA to set an allowable daily intake at any
level. He stated in his testimony that Searle's studies were
"to a large extent unreliable" and that "at least
one of those studies has established beyond any reasonable doubt
that aspartame is capable of inducing brain tumors in experimental
" He concluded his testimony by asking,
"What is the reason for the apparent refusal by the FDA
to invoke for this food additive the so-called Delaney Amendment
to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act?
And if the FDA itself
elects to violate the law, who is left to protect the health
of the public?"(16)
In the mid-1970s it was discovered that the manufacturer of
aspartame falsified studies in several ways. One of the techniques
used was to cut tumors out of test animals and put them back
in the study. Another technique used to falsify the studies
was to list animals that had actually died as surviving the
study. Thus, the data on brain tumors was likely worse than
discussed above. In addition, a former employee of the manufacturer
of aspartame told the FDA on July 13, 1977 that the particles
of DKP were so large that the rats could discriminate between
the DKP and their normal diet.(12)
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) is actually recommending
this chemical poison to persons with diabetes, but according
to research conducted by a diabetes specialist, aspartame: 1)
Leads to the precipitation of clinical diabetes. 2) Causes poorer
diabetic control in diabetics on insulin or oral drugs. 3) Leads
to the aggravation of diabetic complications such as retinopathy,
cataracts, neuropathy and gastroparesis. 4) Causes convulsions.
In a statement concerning the use of products containing aspartame
by persons with diabetes and hypoglycemia, the researchers says:
"Unfortunately, many patients in my practice, and others
seen in consultation, developed serious metabolic, neurologic
and other complications that could be specifically attributed
to using aspartame products. This was evidenced by the loss
of diabetic control, the intensification of hypoglycemia, the
occurrence of presumed 'insulin reactions' (including convulsions)
that proved to be aspartame reactions, and the precipitation,
aggravation or simulation of diabetic complications (especially
impaired vision and neuropathy) while using these products
Dramatic improvement of such features after avoiding aspartame,
and the prompt predictable recurrence of these problems when
the patient resumed aspartame products, knowingly or inadvertently."
Another researcher stated that excitotoxins such as those found
in aspartame can precipitate diabetes in persons who are genetically
susceptible to the disease.(5)
In a double blind study of the effects of aspartame on persons
with mood disorders, findings showed a large increase in serious
symptoms for persons taking aspartame. Since some of the symptoms
were so serious, the Institutional Review Board had to stop
the study. Three of the participants had said that they had
been "poisoned" by aspartame. Researchers concluded
that "individuals with mood disorders are particularly
sensitive to this artificial sweetener; its use in this population
should be discouraged."(18) One researcher stated about
aspartame, "I know it causes seizures. I'm convinced also
that it definitely causes behavioral changes. I'm very angry
that this substance is on the market. I personally question
the reliability and validity of any studies funded by the NutraSweet
Additionally, there are numerous reported cases of low brain
serotonin levels, depression and other emotional disorders that
have been linked to aspartame and often are relieved by stopping
the intake of aspartame.
With the large and growing number of seizures caused by aspartame,
it is sad to see that the Epilepsy Foundation is promoting the
"safety" of aspartame. At Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, 80 people who had suffered seizures after ingesting
aspartame were surveyed. Community Nutrition Institute concluded
the following about the survey:
"These 80 cases meet the FDA's own definition of an imminent
hazard to the public health, which requires the FDA to expeditiously
remove a product from the market."
Both the Air Force's magazine, Flying Safety, and the Navy's
magazine, Navy Physiology, published articles warning about
the many dangers of aspartame including the cumulative delirious
effects of methanol and the greater likelihood of birth defects.
The articles note that the ingestion of aspartame can make pilots
more susceptible to seizures and vertigo. Twenty articles sounding
warnings about ingesting aspartame while flying have also appeared
in the National Business Aircraft Association Digest (NBAA Digest
1993), Aviation Medical Bulletin (1988), The Aviation Consumer
(1988), Canadian General Aviation News (1990), Pacific Flyer
(1988), General Aviation News (1989), Aviation Safety Digest
(1989), and Plane & Pilot (1990) and a paper warning about
aspartame was presented at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Aerospace
Medical Association (Gaffney 1986).
A hotline was even set up for pilots suffering from acute reactions
to aspartame ingestion. Over 600 pilots have reported symptoms
including some who have reported suffering grand mal seizures
in the cockpit due to aspartame.(21)
Aspartame disease refers to a constellation of symptoms attributed
to the use of products containing aspartame. Common occurrences
include: headaches, dizziness, and everything from confusion
to ringing in the ears and slurred speech. Since its introduction
as a food additive in 1981, aspartame has accounted for more
than 75 percent of all complaints reported to the FDA's Adverse
Reaction Monitoring System. In February 1994, the US Department
of Health and Human Services released this extensive list of
aspartame-induced reactions which encompassed everything from
chronic fatigue syndrome and seizures to infertility and death.
By the FDAs own admission, less than one percent of those who
experience a reaction to a product ever report it. This expands
the 10,000 documented accounts to roughly a million people who
have experienced reactions to aspartame. Moreover, most victims
don't have any idea that aspartame may be at the root of their
Why don't we hear about these things?
The reason many people do not hear about serious reactions to
aspartame is twofold: 1) Lack of awareness by the general population.
Aspartame-caused diseases are not reported in the newspapers like
plane crashes. This is because these incidents occur one at a
time in thousands of different locations across the United States.
2) Most people do not associate their symptoms with the long-term
use of aspartame. For the people who have killed a significant
percentage of their brain cells and thereby caused a chronic illness,
there is no way that they would normally associate such an illness
with aspartame consumption.
How aspartame was approved is a lesson in how chemical and pharmaceutical
companies can manipulate government agencies such as the FDA,
"bribe" organizations such as the American Dietetic
Association, and flood the scientific community with flawed and
fraudulent industry-sponsored studies funded by the makers of
Erik Millstone, a researcher at the Science Policy Research Unit
of Sussex University has compiled thousands of pages of evidence,
some of which have been obtained using the freedom of information
act 23, showing: 1. Laboratory tests were faked and dangers were
concealed. 2. Tumors were removed from animals and animals that
had died were "restored to life" in laboratory records.
3. False and misleading statements were made to the FDA. 4. The
two US Attorneys given the task of bringing fraud charges against
the aspartame manufacturer took positions with the manufacturer's
law firm, letting the statute of limitations run out. 5. The Commissioner
of the FDA overruled the objections of the FDA's own scientific
board of inquiry. Shortly after that decision, he took a position
with Burson-Marsteller, the firm in charge of public relations
for G.D. Searle.
A Public Board of Inquiry (PBOI) was conducted in 1980. There
were three scientists who reviewed the objections of Olney and
Turner to the approval of aspartame. They voted unanimously against
aspartame's approval. The FDA Commissioner, Dr Arthur Hull Hayes,
Jr. then created a 5-person Scientific Commission to review the
PBOI findings. After it became clear that the Commission would
uphold the PBOI's decision by a vote of 3 to 2, another person
was added to the Commission, creating a deadlocked vote. This
allowed the FDA Commissioner to break the deadlock and approve
aspartame for dry goods in 1981. Dr Jacqueline Verrett, the Senior
Scientist in an FDA Bureau of Foods review team created in August
1977 to review the Bressler Report (a report that detailed G.D.
Searle's abuses during the pre-approval testing) said: "It
was pretty obvious that somewhere along the line, the bureau officials
were working up to a whitewash." In 1987, Verrett testified
before the US Senate stating that the experiments conducted by
Searle were a "disaster." She stated that her team was
instructed not to comment on or be concerned with the overall
validity of the studies. She stated that questions about birth
defects have not been answered. She continued her testimony by
discussing the fact that DKP has been shown to increase uterine
polyps and change blood cholesterol and that increasing the temperature
of the product leads to an increase in production of DKP.(13)
The FDA and the manufacturers of aspartame have had a revolving
door of employment for many years. In addition to the FDA Commissioner
and two US Attorneys leaving to take positions with companies
connected with G.D. Searle, four other FDA officials connected
with the approval of aspartame took positions connected with the
NutraSweet industry between 1979 and 1982 including the Deputy
FDA Commissioner, the Special Assistant to the FDA Commissioner,
the Associate Director of the Bureau of Foods and Toxicology and
the Attorney involved with the Public Board of Inquiry.(24)
It is important to realize that this type of revolving-door activity
has been going on for decades. The Townsend Letter for Doctors
(11/92) reported on a study revealing that 37 of 49 top FDA officials
who left the FDA took positions with companies they had regulated.
They also reported that over 150 FDA officials owned stock in
drug companies they were assigned to manage. Many organizations
and universities receive large sums of money from companies connected
to the NutraSweet Association, a group of companies promoting
the use of aspartame. In January 1993, the American Dietetic Association
received a US$75,000 grant from the NutraSweet Company. The American
Dietetic Association has stated that the NutraSweet Company writes
their "Facts" sheets.(25)
What is the FDA doing to protect the consumer
from the dangers of aspartame?
Less than nothing.
In 1992, the FDA approved aspartame for use in malt beverages,
breakfast cereals, and refrigerated puddings and fillings. In
1993 the FDA approved aspartame for use in hard and soft candies,
non-alcoholic favored beverages, tea beverages, fruit juices and
concentrates, baked goods and baking mixes, and frostings, toppings
and fillings for baked goods.
In 1991, the FDA banned the importation of stevia. The powder
of this leaf has been used for hundreds of years as an alternative
sweetener. It is used widely in Japan with no adverse effects.
Scientists involved in reviewing stevia have declared it to be
safe for human consumption--something that has been well known
in many parts of the world where it is not banned. Some people
believe that stevia was banned to keep the product from taking
hold in the United States and cutting into sales of aspartame.(26)
 According to Alex Constantine in his essay entitled "Sweet
 The Guardian, England, July 20, 1990. The Guardian also published
articles that prompted the NutraSweet Company in Deerborn, Illinois
to file a lawsuit for libel, maintaining that "safety issues
were resolved long ago". The Guardian cited documents submitted
to a British government committee reviewing artificial sweeteners.
 Food Magazine, Vol 1, No.9. April/June 1990, "Artificial
Sweetener Suspicions" (England).
 Two former FDA scientists involved in the Searle investigations,
Jacqueline Verrett, a former FDA toxicologist who reviewed data
from three key studies, and Adrian Gross, who was part of a team
of FDA investigators that spent three months at the Searle laboratories
- say the irregularities they discovered were serious enough to
invalidate some of the studies. In an interview, Verrett called
the FDAs final decision to approve aspartame "a giant
cover-up." Food Magazine , Vol 1 No.9, April/June 1990. (England)
 Science Times , February 1985, described the studies as "scientifically
lacking in design and execution."
 Formaldehyde is also a prime ingredient in vaccinations/immunizations
given to humans.
 Extraordinary Science, Vol 7, No.1, Jan/Feb/Mar 1995, p.39.
 The Guardian, April/June 1990 "Laboratory Animals Back
from the Dead in Faulty Safety Tests."
 Study by Dr. John Olney, professor of neuropathology and
psychiatry, Washington School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri.
Interestingly, Japans Ajinomoto Company, a maker of MSG,
is a licensee of Searle Company. Note: (Nutra-Sweet + MSG = Brain
damage in children = Behavior disorders = crime= perceived control
necessity = totalitarian surveillance and control. Mind control
is a reptilian paradigm.
 Dr. Robert published a report detailing 157 persons with
aspartame-induced confusion and memory loss.
 The full investigation was known as the "Dressler Report".
An example from the report: "Animal A23LM was alive at week
88, dead from week 92 through 104, alive at week 108 and dead
at week 112." Lab animals were not permanently tagged to
avoid identification mixups. Tumors were removed from animals
which were returned "healthy" to the study. Animals
were allowed to decompose before post mortem exams were conducted.
 Studies by MIT neuroscientist Richard Wurtman.
 American Cancer Society six-year study which tracked 80,000
 The Effects of Aspartame
 In the 1985 FDA hearings instigated by Senator Metzenbaum,
a sample case was revealed in which a womans memory rapidly
slipped into oblivion until she stopped consuming aspartane-laced
 Steinman, "Diet for a Poisoned Planet", p.190.
University of California study.
 PILOTS: For more information, contact the Aspartame Safety
Network at 214-352-4268
Additional Resources on the Net
Reference Source 59, 116,120